Manwich Monday??

Like, hey… I bought a Manwich can last week and got it out last Friday night to cook up some yummy Manwiches… but WTF?? The label said “Manwich Monday”. BUT is was FRIDAY… Not MONDAY. So I went back to the store and went through every can on the shelf and guess what?? NO “Manwich Friday” cans. So I tooted over to three more stores and still NO “Manwich Friday” cans. WTF Hunt’s?? So now it’s Monday and guess what?? I don’t want Manwiches today.

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Location of The Tempest

I. Gascoyne’s *A delicate diet, for daintiemouthde droonkardes* (1576)

‘I thought it shoulde not be vnprofitable, nor any way vnpleasaunt (vnlesse it be to such as can not abyde to heare of vertue, for feare least they might be ashamed of theyr vyce) to adde some Aucthoryties and examples for the more speedy extyrpation of this monstrous plant, lately crepte into the pleasaunt Orchyardes of Englande.

‘And surely it is time (yea more then tyme) that we shoulde foresée, and learne to auoyde, those Bermaydes of myschiefe, which pype so pleasantly in euery Potte, that men be thereby allured to sayle into the Ilandes of all euyll. And there (being iustly depryued of Gods grace,) are transfourmed into most ougly shapes of brute Beastes.

‘And least I séeme ouer sodainly to leape into my matter, and ouer rashly to rayle before good proofe of reproofe, let mée set downe this for my generall proposition, That all Droonkardes are Beastes…’

=== Could this early reference to Bermudas (Bermaydes) as a drink be relevant to The Tempest (‘to fetch dew / From the still-vex’d Bermoothes’)? i.e. Why are scholars so intent on saying Tempest was written about the geographical islands?

II. Could the actual island for Tempest be the Fortunate Isles (i.e. Canary Islands)?
(a) Fortunate = Prosperous
(b) Canary = There are dogs on Tempest island.
(c) Caliban’s ‘a south-west blow on ye / And blister you all o’er!’ could refer to the winds coming off the Sahara Desert.
(d) Ariel’s song ‘Come unto these yellow sands’ could refer to sulphur from a volcano.

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Queen Elizabeth and Susanna in The Tempest

Leviticus 25: The Jubilee and The Tempest

I. Purpose of subplot

So how does this biblical Jubilee subplot relate to our dating of The Tempest to the year 1583? Consider the fact that such Jubilee occurs every fifty years, then consider the fact that Queen Elizabeth celebrated her fiftieth birthday on 7 September 1583.(fn. 32)

For further validation the Jubilee subplot does indeed fit in with the foregoing Lenten season allusions, consider the fact that Quinquagesima (Shrove Sunday) is the fiftieth day before Easter and is the prelude to the Lenten season.

And refer to the prophecy at Mark 13:30-31, which is read on February 13th (our assumed First Day of Lent): ‘Verely I say vnto you, that this (n) generacion shal not passe, til all these things be done. 31. Heauen and earth shal passe away, but my wordes shal not passe away.’ Marginal note (n): ‘The worde signifieth the space of a 100 yeres albeit this came to passe before fiftie yeres.’

Compare with Prospero’s ‘Our revels now are ended. … the great globe itself, / Yea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve, / And like this insubstantial pageant faded / Leave not a rack behind.’ (IV.i.148, 153-6)

Also, consider the fact that Joel 1 and 2 are readings from the BCP on September 10th, the ‘tenth day of the seuenth moneth’ per Leviticus 25:9 which is the day of the Jubilee. Recall Joel 2:15-17 is read at the Communion Service on the First Day of Lent and that Joel 1:9 and 13 nicely allude to the Lenten season.

Regarding the monthly change in the moon, compare our previous trio of assumed years with the addition of the September New Moon:(fn. 33)

Feb 1583 Feb 1594 Feb 1605
Sun 10 10 10
Mon 11 11 11
Tues 12 12 12 – New Moon
Wed 13 – Ash Wed 13 – Ash Wed 13 – Ash Wed
Thur 14 14 – New Moon 14
Fri 15 – New Moon 15 15
Sat 16 16 16
SEPT 10 – New Moon 9 – New Moon 7 – New Moon

Clearly, we see that only 1583 shows a New Moon occurring on September 10th, again noted as the ‘tenth day of the seuenth moneth’ per Leviticus 25:9 which is the day of the Jubilee, further validating our dating of The Tempest to said year.

For further validation The Tempest alludes to Queen Elizabeth, consider this listing found in Cooper’s Thesaurus (1578): ‘Viro tempestiua virgo’ which is defined by Horatio as ‘A maiden maryable.’(fn. 34)  Compare not only the character, Miranda, but also the fact that Elizabeth was born under the sign of Virgo. Also, note ‘tempestiua’ certainly reflects not only the name of the play, but also the coming marriage season.

And, finally, consider the scripture from Matthew 8:23-27 as read on September 7th (the day of Elizabeth’s birth):

And when he was entred into the ship, his disciples followed him. 24. And beholde, there arose a great tempest in the sea, so that the ship was couered with waues: but he was a slepe. 25. Then his disciples came, & awoke him, saying, Master, saue vs: we perish. 26. And he said vnto them, Why are ye feareful, o ye of litle faith? Then he arose, and rebuked the windes and the sea: and so there was a great calme. 27. And the men marueiled, saying, What man is this, that bothe the windes and the sea obey him!

III. Other Events in the Year 1583

We should also consider the fact that Shakespeare’s daughter, Susanna, was baptized on May 26th, 1583 (Trinity Sunday).

The BCP shows Matthew 24 as one of the scriptures read on May 26th.

Also, per ‘A Table of the Epistles and Ghosphels After the Romane Vse, Vpon Svndayes, Holidayes, and other Feasts, and special daies and causes through the whole yeare’ from the 1582 Rheims New Testament:

For ‘Trinitie Sunday’, Matthew 24 is listed as the Gospel reading.
For ‘S. Faustinus and Iouita’ day, Matthew 24 is listed as the Gospel reading.

Consider that Matthew 24:32: ‘Now learne the parable of the figge tre: when her bough is yet tender, & it bringeth forthe leaues, ye knowe that sommer is nere.’ is comparable to Mark 13:28: ‘Now learne a parable of the figge tre, When her bough is yet tender, & it bringeth forthe leaues, ye knowe that sommer is nere.’ Recall that Mark 13 is read on February 13th (our assumed First Day of Lent) and that Faustin’s day is celebrated on February 15th.

The liturgical calendar as found in the Bishops’ Bible (f.p. 1568) shows 2 Esdras 4 and 5 as two of the scriptures read on May 26th.(fn. 35) We should note that Nehemiah 4 discusses how the building of Jerusalem was hindered. We should further note the map of the Temple of Jerusalem as found in the Bishops’ Bible (f.p. 1568) does indeed mimic the island in The Tempest.(fn. 36) And recall that Nehemiah 5:11 is consistent with the Jubilee readings at both Leviticus 25:13 and 25:37.

Clearly, The Tempest reflects a renewal not only via the fiftieth anniversary of Queen Elizabeth’s birth, but also via Shakespeare’s first-born child, Susanna, whose baptism would indeed bring her into a new world in the year 1583.


(32)  Elizabeth was born on 7 September 1533 and was baptized three days later on the 10th of September (i.e. the ‘tenth day of the seuenth moneth’ per Leviticus 25:9). Recall that The Tempest occurs over three days, culminating in a ‘renewal’, and that a baptism is considered to be such a ‘renewal’.

(33)  September New Moon dates are from the BCP.

(34)  Thomas Cooper, Thesaurus linguæ Romanæ & Britannicæ (London, 1578) <; accessed 18 January 2016. Listed under ‘Tempestiuus’ which is defined by Cicero as ‘Done in conuenyent tyme and season: seasonable.’

(35)  The book ‘2 Esdras’ is the called ‘Nehemiah’ in the Geneva Bible.

(36)  See Map of Prospero’s Island for a map of the Temple of Jerusalem as based on the book of Nehemiah. For references to the six porches, see Neh. 3:1: ‘the shepegate’; 3:3: ‘the fish porte’; 3:6: ‘the gate of the olde fishpoole’; 3:13: ‘the valley gate’; 3:14: ‘the dung porte’; 3:15: ‘the gate of the fountaine’.

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Leviticus 25: The Jubilee and The Tempest

A New Source, A New Date for The Tempest, Part 3

II. Subplot in The Tempest

A. Thou did promise to bate me a full year

Ariel.  Is there more toil? Since thou dost give me pains,
xxxxxLet me remember thee what thou hast promis’d,
xxxxxWhich is not yet perform’d me.
Prospero.  How now? moody?
xxxxxWhat is’t thou canst demand?
ArielMy liberty.
Prospero.  Before the time be out? No more!
Ariel.  I prithee,
xxxxxRemember I have done thee worthy service;
xxxxxTold thee no lies, made thee no mistakings, serv’d
xxxxxWithout or grudge or grumblings. Thou did promise
xxxxxTo bate me a full year.
(I.ii.242-50: emphasis added)

Why does Prospero promise to give Ariel his liberty for ‘a full year’? Shakespeare is alluding to the biblical Jubilee at Leviticus 25:10 (fn. 20) : ‘And ye shal halowe that yere, euen the fiftieth yere, and proclaime libertie in the land to all the (f) inhabitants thereof …’ The marginal note (f) refers to those inhabitants ‘Which were in bondage’. Further explanation at Leviticus 25:40-41: ‘But as an hyred seruant, and as a soiourner he shal be with thee: he shal serue thee vnto the yere of the Iubile. 41 Then shal he departe from thee, …’

B. Make holiday

[Ceres.]  …
xxxxxSpring come to you at the farthest
xxxxxIn the very end of harvest!

(IV.i.114-5: emphasis added)

Iris.  …
[s.d.] Enter certain Nymphs.
xxxxxYou sunburn’d sicklemen, of August weary,
xxxxxCome hither from the furrow and be merry.
xxxxxMake holiday; …
[s.d.] Enter certain Reapers, properly habited: they join with the Nymphs in a graceful dance, towards the end whereof Prospero starts suddenly, and speaks; after which, to a strange, hollow, and confused noise, they heavily vanish.
(IV.i.134-6, 138 s.d.: emphasis added)

Shakespeare is again alluding to the biblical Jubilee at Leviticus 25:11: ‘This fiftieth yere shalbe a yere of Iubile vnto you: ye shal not sowe, nether reape that which groweth of it selfe, nether gather the grapes thereof, that are left vnlaboured.’ The Jubilee is the culmination of seven Sabbath years. Leviticus 25:3-4 tells us to harvest our fruits in the sixth year before the land is to be rested in the seventh.(fn. 21)  The marginal note (a) at Leviticus 25:3 informs us ‘The Iewes began the count of this yere in September: for then all the frutes were gathered.’ Per Leviticus 25:9, the beginning of the Jubilee is in the seventh month (September) which indeed follows Shakespeare’s ‘August weary’ harvest season. His sicklemen would rest (‘Spring come to you at the farthest / In the very end of harvest’) and ‘make holiday’ for a year as per the command at Leviticus 25:10 to free all servants during the Jubilee year.

In the stage direction, Shakespeare alludes to the blowing of the trumpet after the harvest (‘after which, to a strange, hollow, and confused noise’) which signals the start of the Jubilee.(fn. 22)  Shakespeare’s noise is ‘strange, hollow, and confused’ per the admonition at Matthew 6:2 to give alms in secret and not to blow one’s trumpet as the Jews do.(fn. 23)  Whereas the Christian will be rewarded by God in heaven for his secret almsgiving, the Jews are rewarded by their fellow man. Thus, the blowing of the trumpet is heard quite often by the Jews; the Christians, not until the resurrection of the dead.(fn. 24)

As proof of such, compare both Prospero’s ‘Spirits, which by mine art / I have from their confines call’d to enact / My present fancies.’ (IV.i.120-2: emphasis added) as said within the masque and his earlier exchange with Ariel,

Prospero. … for I must
xxxxxBestow upon the eyes of this young couple
xxxxxSome vanity of mine art. …
Ariel. Presently?
Prospero.  Ay, with a twink.
(IV.i.39-41; 42-43: emphasis added)

with that part of the Burial Service from the BCP which quotes 1 Corinthians 15.51-52: ‘Beholde, I shewe you a misterye. we shall not all slepe: but we shall al be chaunged, and that in a momente, in the twynkelynge of an eye by the last trumpe. For the trumpe shall blowe, and the deade shall rise incorruptible, & we shall be chaunged.’(fn. 25)

C. Thy food shall be

Prospero.  … Come,
xxxxxI’ll manacle thy neck and feet together:
xxxxxSea-water shalt thou drink; thy food shall be
xxxxxThe fresh-brook mussels, wither’d roots, and husks
xxxxxWherein the acorn cradled. Follow.
(I.ii.461-5: emphasis added)

Here, Shakespeare is alluding to Leviticus 25:12: ‘For it is the Iubile, it shal be holy vnto you: ye shal eat of the increase thereof out of the field.’ Compare Lev 25:6: ‘And the (d) rest of the land shalbe meat for you, …’ The marginal note (d) tells us ‘That which the land bringeth forthe in her rest.’

D. Thou must restore

Alonso.  … Thy dukedom I resign, and do entreat
xxxxxThou pardon me my wrongs. …

Prospero.  No.
xxxxxFor you, most wicked sir, whom to call brother
xxxxxWould even infect my mouth, I do forgive
xxxxxThy rankest fault‒all of them; and require
xxxxxMy dukedom of thee, which perforce, I know
xxxxxThou must restore.
(V.i.118-9, 129-34: emphasis added)

Once again, Shakespeare is alluding to the biblical Jubilee at Leviticus 25:13: ‘In the yere of this Iubile, ye shal returne euerie man vnto his possession.’ The marginal note at Leviticus 25:23 tells us that land ‘colde not be solde for euer, but must returne to the familie in the Iubile’. In a Jubilee year, Antonio ‘must restore’ Prospero’s dukedom to him.

E. Ferdinand as hired servant

Leviticus 25:39-41: ‘If thy brother also that dwelleth by thee, be impouerished, and be solde vnto thee, thou shalt not compel him to serue as a bonde seruant, 40 But as an hyred seruant, and as a soiourner he shal be with thee: he shal serue thee vnto the yere of the Iubile. 41 Then shal he departe from thee, bothe he, and his children with him, and shal returne vnto his familie, and vnto the possession of his fathers shal he returne.’

Prospero has hired Ferdinand to work in the same occupation as Caliban in exchange for his daughter. Prospero must release his hired servant in the year of the Jubilee, whereupon Ferdinand will return to his father.

F. Caliban as bond servant

(a) Leviticus 25:44-46: ‘Thy bonde seruant also, and thy bonde maid, which thou shalt haue, shal be of the heathen that are rounde about you: of them shal ye bye seruants and maids. 45 And moreouer of the children of the strangers, that are soiourners among you, of them shal ye bye, and of their families that are with you, which they begate in your land: these shalbe your (t) possession. 46 So ye shal take them as inheritance for your children after you, to possesse them by inheritance, ye shal vse their labours for euer: but ouer your brethren the children of Israel ye shal not rule one ouer another with crueltie.’ Marginal note (t): ‘For thei shal not be boght out at the Iubile.’

Clearly, a bond servant may be ruled over with cruelty as indeed Prospero has ruled over Caliban (a heathen who worships false gods) in such ill manner.

(b) Leviticus 27:24: ‘But in the yere of Iubile, the field shal returne vnto him, of whome it was boght: to him, I say, whose inheritance the land was.’

Caliban.  …
xxxxxThis island’s mine, by Sycorax my mother,
xxxxxWhich thou takest from me. …
(I.ii.331-2: emphasis added)

Although Caliban will remain a bond servant, his inheritance (the island) will return to him in the year of the Jubilee.

G. No use of metal, corn, or wine, or oil

Gonzalo.  … No use of metal, corn, or wine, or oil; …
(II.i.154: emphasis added)

Historically, the declared immediate source for Gonzalo’s line has been John Florio’s 1603 translation of Montaigne’s 1580 ‘Des Cannibales’: ‘no vse of wine, corne, or mettle.’(fn. 26)  Naseeb Shaheen further suggests Gonzalo’s line is patterned on Psalm 4.8 from the Psalter (1584 ed. as bound with the Bishops’ Bible): ‘their corne and wine and oyle increased’.(fn. 27)

However, while Montaigne’s statement includes ‘no use’, it does not include ‘oil’. Similarly, Psalm 4.8 lacks ‘metal’ and, furthermore, talks about the victuals being increased rather than the usage of such.

A much better source for Gonzalo’s line is Nehemiah 5:11: ‘Restore, I pray you, vnto them this day their lands, their vineyardes, their oliues, and their houses, and remit the hundreth parte of the siluer and of the corne, of the wine, & of the oyle (l) that ye exact of them.’ The marginal note (l) points to ‘the hundreth parte’ [usury], ‘Which ye take of them for the lone.’

Gonzalo’s ‘use’ refers to the biblical concept of ‘usury’ rather than the actual usage of such metal and victuals. The remittance of ‘the hundreth parte’ on ‘the lone’ back to the people at Nehemiah 5:11 equates to ‘no use’ (‘no usury’) of ‘metal, corn, or wine, or oil’. In fact, the Great Bible (1540 ed.) specifies ‘usury’ in the immediately preceding verse: ‘… do lend them money & corne: but as for vsurye, let vs leaue it.’(fn. 28)  Although several other biblical verses contain ‘corn’, ‘wine’, and ‘oil’, none of these also include ‘metal’ (except Hosea 2:8 which talks about multiplying ‘silver and gold’ rather than its use).(fn. 29)

The restoration at Nehemiah 5:11 is consistent with the command at Leviticus 25:13 to return all possessions in a Jubilee year; the remittance, with Leviticus 25:37: ‘Thou shalt not giue him thy money to vsurie, nor lend him thy vitailes for increase.’

H. O brave new world

Miranda.  O, wonder!
xxxxxHow many goodly creatures are there here!
xxxxxHow beauteous mankind is! O brave new world
xxxxxThat has such people in’t!”
Prospero.  ‘Tis new to thee.
(V.i.181-4: emphasis added)

Scholars have long assumed Miranda’s ‘O brave new world’ refers to a geographical New World. However, Arthur Golding’s translation of John Calvin’s 1555 sermon on Deuternomy 15.16-23, with its side-note regarding the Jubilee year, gives us an interesting alternative:

… [W]e must vnderstand that the yeere of Iubile was excepted, as we may see in other places. And in very deede, the compasse of fiftie yeeres was called a worlde, and the worde that Moses vseth is taken sometimes for the age of a man, His meaning then is, that he which consenteth to be a bondeslaue, shall abide in that state for euer, that is to say euen vntill the state of the countrie be renewed, as well concerning mens Landes as their persons: at which time euery man entered againe into his owne heritage, that God might alwayes be knowen to be both souereigne Lord and as it were the onely Lorde of the soile, & that the inhabiters were not owners and freeholders, but onely as tennauntes at will, or farmers, for those are the verie termes that our Lorde vseth. Therefore his will was that the parting of the Lande which was made by his commaundement shoulde bee kept: the meane whereof was that euery man shoulde returne to his owne inheritaunce & possession at the fiftith yeere, at which time the whole state of the Realme was chaunged in all other thinges. Thus see we now what was the effect of this Lawe.

According to Calvin (per Golding), a period of fifty years was called a ‘world’. Such ‘world’ would be renewed in the year of the Jubilee. In light of the aforementioned allusions to the biblical Jubilee in The Tempest, Miranda’s reference to the ‘new world’ is a biblical New World as begun in the year of the Jubilee, rather than a geographical one.

Prospero’s response to his daughter, ‘’Tis new to thee.’, is certainly apt in that the now 15-year-old Miranda is not old enough to have witnessed a Jubilee. However, Prospero’s words suggests he has witnessed at least one. And any Jubilee Prospero would have witnessed would have been the Roman Jubilee as devised by Pope Boniface VIII in 1300. Although Boniface’s Jubilee was to be celebrated every hundred years, later popes decreased the interval to fifty, then thirty-three, and, finally, twenty-five years in 1470.(fn. 31)

=== GO TO Queen Elizabeth and Susanna in The Tempest ===


(20)  The Jubilee in the fiftieth year is referenced at Leviticus 25:8-13: ‘8 Also thou shalt nomber seuen Sabbaths of yeres vnto thee, euen seuen times seuen yere: and the space of the seuen Sabbaths of yeres wil be vnto thee nine and fourty yere. 9 (e) Then thou shalt cause to blowe the trumpet of the Iubile in the tenth day of the seuenth moneth: euen in the day of the reconciliacion shal ye make the trumpet blowe, through out all your land. 10 And ye shal halowe that yere, euen the fiftieth yere, and proclaime libertie in the land to all the (f) inhabitants thereof: it shal be the Iubile vnto you, and ye shal returne euerie man vnto his (g) possession, and euerie man shal returne vnto his familie. 11 This fiftieth yere shalbe a yere of Iubile vnto you: ye shal not sowe, nether reape that which groweth of it selfe, nether gather the grapes thereof, that are left vnlaboured. 12 For it is the Iubile, it shal be holy vnto you: ye shal eat of the increase thereof out of the field. 13 In the yere of this Iubile, ye shal returne euerie man vnto his possession.’

Marginal note (e): ‘In the beginning of the 50. yere was the Iubile, so called, because the ioyful tidings of libertie was publikely proclaimed by the sounde of a cornet.
Marginal note (f): Which were in bondage.
Marginal note (g): Because the tribes shulde nether haue their possessions, or families diminshed nor confounded.

(21)  Lev. 25:3-4: ‘(a) Six yeres thou shalt sowe thy field, and six yeres thou shalt cut thy vineyard, and gather the frute thereof. 4 But the seuenth yere shalbe a Sabbath of rest vnto the land: it shall [b]e the Lords Sabbath: thou shalt nether sowe thy field, nor cut thy vineyarde.’

(22)  Lev. 25:9: ‘Then thou shalt cause to blowe the trumpet of the Iubile in the tenth day of the seuenth moneth…’

(23)  Matt. 6:2: ‘Therefore when thou giuest thine almes, thou shalt not make a trumpet to be blowen before thee, as the (a) hypocrites do in the Synagogues and in the stretes, to be praised of men. Verely I say vnto you, they haue their (b) rewarde.’ Marginal notes (a): ‘Whose workes procede not of a right faith, but are done for vaine glorie’; (b): ‘In that thei are praised & commended of men’. (emphasis added)

(24)  1 Cor 15:52: ‘In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye at the last trumpet: for the trumpet shal blowe, and the dead shal be raised vp incorruptible, and we shalbe changed.’ (emphasis added)

(25)  ‘The Order for the Buriall of the dead’ in BCP, f.104-v.

(26)  In actuality, the phrase ‘nul metal, nul vsage de vin ou de bled’ from Montaigne’s 1580 ‘Des Cannibales’ translates into ‘no metal, no use of wine or corn’.

(27)  Naseeb Shaheen, Biblical References in Shakespeare’s Plays (Newark, DE, 1999, 2011), 743-4.

(28)  At Nehemiah 5:10, both the Geneva (1560 ed.) and Bishops’ (1568 ed.) have: ‘… let vs leaue of this burden.’ See the Genevan marginal note at Nehemiah 5:7 which equates ‘burdens’ with ‘vsurie’. Note: The book ‘Nehemiah’ is called ‘2 Esdras’ in both the Great and Bishops’ Bibles.

(29)  Deut. 7:13; 12.17; 14:23; 18:4; 2 Chron. 31:5; Nehemiah 10:39; 13:5, 12; Hosea 2:22; Joel 1:10; 2:19; Haggai 1:11.

(30)  The sermons of M. Iohn Caluin vpon the fifth booke of Moses called Deuteronomie, trans. Arthur Golding (London, 1583), 591; emphasis added. URL:; accessed 16 November 2015. Sermon entitled ‘On Munday the iiij. of Nouember. 1555. The XCvj Sermon, which is the fourth vpon the fifteenth Chapter.’ Deut. 15:16-18 discusses the release of servants after six years of service, unless he chooses not to go, whereupon his ear will be pierced and he will be a servant forever (until the year of the Jubilee). Deut. 5:19-23 explains how ‘The first borne of the cattel must be offred to the Lord.’ (chapter topical summary).

(31)  With the exception of Pope Nicholas V, who reverted back to the fifty-year Jubilee in 1450.

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